Scientific feature that focuses on the muscle and systemic molecular responses obtained after a single flywheel based training session and evaluated through Specific tests.
It was published by Dr. GIosué Annibalini and a team of researchers of the University of Urbino Carlo Bo, on Frontiers in Physiology, May 2019

The aim of this project is to evaluate the molecular adaptations induced by Flywheel exercises. The Desmotec device D.Sport was also used in the research process.


Desmotec D.SPORT



Growing evidence points to the effectiveness of flywheel (FW) based iso-inertial resistance training in improving physical performance capacities. However, molecular adaptations induced by FW exercises are largely unknown. Eight resistance-trained men performed 5 sets of 10 maximal squats on a FW device. Muscle biopsies (fine needle aspiration technique) and blood samples were collected before (t0), and 2 h (t1) after FW exercise. Blood samples were additionally drawn after 24 h (t2) and 48 h (t3).

Paired samples t-tests revealed significant increases, at t1, of mRNA expression of the genes involved in inflammation, in both muscle (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (IkB-α, MCP-1). Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and EV-encapsulated miRNA levels (miR-206, miR-146a) significantly increased at t1 as well. Conversely, muscle mRNA level of genes associated with muscle growth/remodeling (IGF-1Ea, cyclin D1, myogenin) decreased at t1. One-way repeated measure ANOVAs, with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc pairwise comparisons, revealed significant increases in plasma concentrations of IL-6 (t1; t2; t3) and muscle creatine kinase (t1; t2), while IGF-1 significantly increased at t2 only. Our findings show that, even in experienced resistance trained individuals, a single FW training session modifies local and systemic markers involved in late structural remodeling and functional adaptation of skeletal muscle.

Click here to read the whole feature.