Effects of postactivation potentiation after an eccentric overload bout on countermovement jump and lower-limb muscle strength.

Scientific feature that shows the results of Eccentric training evaluated through Specific tests.
It was published by Prof. Marco Beato, Desmotec Academy Member and Senior Lecturer in Strength & Conditioning at University of Suffolk, on the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, January 2019.

The aim of this project is to evaluate the postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects of an eccentric overload (EOL) exercise on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and isokinetic lower-limb muscle strength. The Desmotec device D.Full was also used in the research process.


Desmotec D.FULL


Beato, M, Stiff, A, and Coratella, G. Effects of postactivation potentiation after an eccentric overload bout on countermove- ment jump and lower-limb muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018—This study aimed to evaluate the postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects of an eccentric over- load (EOL) exercise on countermovement jump (CMJ) perfor- mance and isokinetic lower-limb muscle strength.

Eighteen active men (mean 6 SD, age 20.2 6 1.4 years, body mass 71.6 6 8 kg, and height 178 6 7 cm) were involved in a randomized, crossover study. The participants performed 3 sets per 6 repetitions of EOL half squats at maximal power using a flywheel ergometer. Postactivation potentiation using an EOL exercise was compared with a control condition (10-minute cycling at 1 W$kg21). Countermovement jump height, peak power, impulse, and force were recorded at 15 seconds, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 minutes after an EOL exercise or control. Furthermore, quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic strength were performed.

Postactivation potentiation vs. control reported a meaningful difference for CMJ height after 3 minutes (effect size [ES] = 0.68, p = 0.002), 5 minutes (ES = 0.58, p = 0.008), 7 minutes (ES = 0.57, p = 0.022), and 9 minutes (ES = 0.61, p = 0.002), peak power after 1 minute (ES = 0.22, p = 0.040), 3 minutes (ES = 0.44, p = 0.009), 5 minutes (ES = 0.40, p = 0.002), 7 minutes (ES = 0.29, p = 0.011), and 9 minutes (ES = 0.30, p = 0.008), as well as quadriceps concentric, hamstrings concentric, and hamstrings eccentric peak torque (ES = 0.13, p = 0.001, ES = 0.24, p = 0.003, and ES = 0.22, p = 003, respectively) after 3–9 minutes of rest.

In conclusion, the present outcomes highlight that PAP using an EOL bout improves height, peak power, impulse, and peak force during CMJ, as well as quadriceps and hamstrings
isokinetic strength in male athletes. Moreover, the optimal time window for the PAP was found from 3 to 9 minutes.

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Muscle and Systemic Molecular Responses to a Single Flywheel Based Iso-Inertial Training Session in Resistance-Trained Men.

Scientific feature that focuses on the muscle and systemic molecular responses obtained after a single flywheel based training session and evaluated through Specific tests.
It was published by Dr. GIosué Annibalini and a team of researchers of the University of Urbino Carlo Bo, on Frontiers in Physiology, May 2019

The aim of this project is to evaluate the molecular adaptations induced by Flywheel exercises. The Desmotec device D.Sport was also used in the research process.


Desmotec D.SPORT



Growing evidence points to the effectiveness of flywheel (FW) based iso-inertial resistance training in improving physical performance capacities. However, molecular adaptations induced by FW exercises are largely unknown. Eight resistance-trained men performed 5 sets of 10 maximal squats on a FW device. Muscle biopsies (fine needle aspiration technique) and blood samples were collected before (t0), and 2 h (t1) after FW exercise. Blood samples were additionally drawn after 24 h (t2) and 48 h (t3).

Paired samples t-tests revealed significant increases, at t1, of mRNA expression of the genes involved in inflammation, in both muscle (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (IkB-α, MCP-1). Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and EV-encapsulated miRNA levels (miR-206, miR-146a) significantly increased at t1 as well. Conversely, muscle mRNA level of genes associated with muscle growth/remodeling (IGF-1Ea, cyclin D1, myogenin) decreased at t1. One-way repeated measure ANOVAs, with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc pairwise comparisons, revealed significant increases in plasma concentrations of IL-6 (t1; t2; t3) and muscle creatine kinase (t1; t2), while IGF-1 significantly increased at t2 only. Our findings show that, even in experienced resistance trained individuals, a single FW training session modifies local and systemic markers involved in late structural remodeling and functional adaptation of skeletal muscle.

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Integrating DTS Technology into a Training Protocol: Mogul Ski


DTS can be easily integrated into specific training programmes for sport disciplines such as Mogul Ski. The training programme could be split into three different phases:

  1. In the first phase of “dry” conditioning, free weights and free-body exercises were used.
  2. In the second conditioning phase, Desmotec was introduced to support work with overloads/free body. In this phase inertias were used to stimulate a greater acceleration and deceleration component.
  3. In the third phase, that of approaching the races, the number of inertias was reduced to work more on the speed of the movements. Desmotec played a central role during the competitive period. The inertias were modulated according to the requests. Often it was also used as a neuromuscular “activation” the day before or the day of a competition.


Gender Female
Age /
Job Pro-Athlete




Preparation for Mogul Ski professional competitions


(2 SETS of each 15 seconds duration)

  • Exercise 1: on V.line 15 sec each movements – 1M
  • Exercise 2: 2M
  • Exercise 3: 3M


  • Exercise 1: 15 sec duration – 4M
  • Exercise 2: 5M
  • Exercise 3: 15 sec each leg. – 6M


  • Exercise 1: V.line step up (15 sec each leg) – 7M
  • Exercise 2: 8M
  • Exercise 3: Lateral hop 15 sec duration – 9M
  • Exercise 4: 15 sec duration – 10M
  • Exercise 5: 6 jumps – 11M



(each station is 4×15’’ with 5’’ rest only between movements – 5 SETS for a total time of 15 minutes of work)

  • Exercise 1: Bike: use towel or water in mouth to only breath through the nose – 12M
  • Exercise 2: V.line Side shuffle (2 sets each side) – 13M
  • Exercise 3: In out on quick feet on trampoline – 14M


(3 SETS of 20’’ each)

  • Exercise 1: Hip raise on Bosu – 15M
  • Exercise 2: V up on Bosu – 16M
  • Exercise 3: Side bridge rows on bosu – 17M
  • Exercise 4: Overhead side bend on Bosu – 18M
  • Exercise 5: – 19M




The integration of the DTS technology with the training tecniques adopted for the preparation of professional Mogul Ski competitions, allow the athlete to perform a specific muscular strengthening programme, thanks to the eccentric training. Furthermore, the opportunity to consult his training results in real time, gives him the possibility to correct his own mistakes and adapt his training programme to any situation.


The Desmotec devices allows to collect, store and share the progression data of any single athlete, providing the opportunity to consult and studying the progresses. DTS technologies also prevented a lower lumbar overload, usually a consequence for this kind of training performed in the traditional way.

Would you like to know more about DESMOTEC technology, devices and training methods?

How to insert Desmotec into a Training Protocol - Football


  • Pre season workouts: Strength and power workouts
  • In season workouts: maintaining/strength and power stimulation/pre training activation
  • Return to play and Injury Prevention: Controlled eccentric overload with software unbalance feedbacks

Olympique de Marseille TRAINING PHYLOSOPHY (17/18)

  • Load progression based on each player’s coordination ability
  • Moving by subsequently coordinative steps to allow safety and complete movement control
  • First goal: improve the specific movement efficiency under stress

2 ways to achieve eccentric response, based on the goal:

  • ANALYTICAL WAY: prevention and strengthening
  • FUNCTIONAL WAY: activation and strengthening

Progressions based on 2 elements: EXERCISE COMPLEXITY and LOAD

  • start from a simple movement, add complexity, then add rotations and at the end add unbalance; it is crucial to respect the steps
  • load selection is based on the GOAL: opposite from the weightlifting.
  1. RECOVERY WORKOUTS: high inertias (PRO) to use when the muscles are stressed (after match) -> no high speed reached, less risk in the eccentric phase
  2. PREVENTING ANALYTICAL WORKOUT: medium inertias (L+M) searching for movement control that will lead to efficiency
  3. PERFORMANCE WORKOUTS: little inertias -> extremely fast muscle contraction -> high risk if the athletes don’t have a good movement coordination (btw, you can use low inertias in reeducation but with slow speed)



MONDAY: STRENGTH CIRCUIT TRAINING (only for who did not play on Sunday)

STRENGTH on +3 and -2 from Game Day




TEAM WORKOUT BASE: on D. squatting, on V. CORE, ROTATIONAL, C.O.D., Specific 4 directions workout for goalkeepers, more analytical for individual conditioning trainings


4-5 STATION CIRCUIT TRAINING with D.LINE for vertical forces and V.LINE for horizontal forces
2 sets of 8-10 reps (in order to have at least 6-8 full power reps)


2 sets of 4-5 reps -> to be done before the field training in order to have neuromuscular activation

Once the players have good movement control on the devices -> CLUSTER METHOD (to have always full power during exercises). PROGRESSION during the year: ADD Exercises COMPLEXITY, ADD SPEED



On V.Line

  • unilateral front /lateral lunge
  • reverse fly with split squat
  • press + lunge

On D.Line 

  • side to side rotating staggered squat






The integration of Desmotec devices into the proposed training program, allows the athletes to approach a specific training focused on power and muscular strengthening. The opportunity to collect, save and store the training data and evaluate the progress step by step, allows the trainers to analyse the training course and the performances of every athlete. Furthermore, using Desmotec devices, the athlete is subject to lower lumbar overload compared with the traditional methods.


Would you like to know more about DESMOTEC technology, devices and training methods?

Sharing my experience with Petra Vlhova and Desmotec


Who is Petra Vhlova?

  • Alpine skiing athlete (giant – slalom)
  • Born June 13th , 1995
  • 2012-2013 world cup debut
  • 4 medals at the World Xhampionships:

– 1 gold (GS 2019)

– 2 silvers (1 AC 2019)

– 1 bronze (SL 2019)

  • Season 2019:

– 2nd overall

– 2nd slalom

– 2nd giant



Gender Female
Age 24
Job Skier

Skier – Competitive Level




  • Season started on April 9th ​​2018 with a technical camp
  • Season ended on March 22, 2019 with material tests


  • In the first phase of “dry” conditioning, free weights and free-body exercises were used.
  • In the second conditioning phase, Desmotec was introduced to support work with overloads / free body. In this phase inertias were used to stimulate a greater acceleration and deceleration component.
  • In the third phase, that of approaching the races, the number of inertias was reduced to work more on the speed of the movements. Desmotec played a central role during the competitive period. The inertias were modulated according to the requests. Often it was also used as a neuromuscular “activation” the day before or the day of a competition.



Device D-Line
Test Max Power Test
Disk 1M + 1L
Sets 1
Repetitions 12





  • During the season body composition data were collected by bioimpedentiometer (Akern / RJL 101)
  • Jumping test, squat jump and countermovement jump, via chronojump platform
  • Power test on 12 repetitions with 1 large disk and 1 medium disk with DLine Desmotec






Extensive work during summer retreats  (in the glacier so no gym)

After warm up:

  1. SQUAT (1L+1M) 2 sets x 45’’. Rest 3’
  2. LATERAL SQUAT (1L+1M) 2 sets x 40’’. Rest 3’
  3. SPLIT SQUAT (1L+1M) 1 x 45’’. Rest 2’30’’
  4. V-SHAPE (1L+1M) 1 x 40’’. Rest 2’30’’
  5. At the end do core exercises


  • Drop jump (fall from 40cm) with barbell (20-30% of bodyweight) + Immediately jump one hurdle of 70 cm repeat 4 times x 4 sets (rest is free)
  • 6 Obstacles jumps in plyometric way (70 cm) x 4 sets (rest is free)
  • Squat with Desmotec for 30’’ (2 large disc) x 3 sets
  • Lateral Squat with desmotec (2 large disc) x 6 each leg x 4 sets
  • Step up explosive x 6 each x 4 sets – with dumbbells
  • Norwegian hamstring x4 with 5” hold at maximal position x 3 sets
  • Sled Pushing 15 meters with high load S.S Sled Pushing 15 meters lower load (increase speed) – 3 sets
  • Side steps resisted with elastic band 3 x 10 meters (or with sled)
  • SLDL with KB x6 each side – 4 sets
  • Slide board or skates or 30” jumps x 6 times

After warm up (15’ with mobilization /foam rolling and correctives)

  • Squat with Desmotec with: V – Shape with 30’’ of work – Rest 30’’ – 1 PROdisc. Try to keep same rhythm. Repeat 3 sets.
  • Between each set add 5 meters of pre-athletics movements
  • Lateral squat with Desmotec 3 x 20’’ with each leg rest 30’’ between each leg. 1 PRO disc. Try to keep same rhythm . Between each set add 5 meters of pre.-athletics movements
  • Rowing with Desmotec 3 x 15 with 1 Large and 1 medium disc. Rest between sets 60’’
  • Split squat with Desmotec 3 x 15’’ with 1 large disc + 1 medium. Rest 60’’
  • Plank reach 3 x 40’’
  • Side plank dynamic on knees 3 x 20 dx,sx
  • Sprint training 4 x 10+10 mt completed in 6-8’’ rest 1’10’’
  • Stretching


  • Mobilization routine (pre-race)
  • Squat(1L) 2 sets x 15’’. Rest 1’15’’
  • Lateral Squat (1L) 2 sets x 15’’ L+R. Rest 1’15’’
  • Split squat (1L) 1 x 15’’. Rest 1’15’’
  • V-Shape (1L) 1 x 15’’. Rest 1’15’’
  • At the end: Movement routine

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Desmotec D.Full in the return to sport activity process after Broken ACL injury


  • Presentation of the data about one of our patietiens, GZ, that used DESMOTEC D.Full in his ACL rehabilitation process
  • The subject is an athlete who performs skiing and ski mountaineering
  • GZ did not have any particular problem, articular mobility of knee was complete and the functionality of the articulation was good.
  • The aim of this process was to improve his neuro.muscular profile:
  1. Qualitative point of view (maximum syimmetrical expression of both limbs)
  2. Quantitative point of view (improving power and strength)


Gender Male
Age 30
Job Student





Broken right knee ACL, April 2016
Relapse, May 2019
Surgery, October 2019


Functional recovery with Physiotherapist
Mobility recovery Manual, Kinetec
Proprioceptive reprogramming  Riva Method
Open and closed kinetic chain exercises

Lower Limbs

Isometric, slow speed dynamic


Device D11 Full
Test Squat, Split Squat,
Proposed exercises Squat, Split Squat, Side Squat, Hinge
Tool Harness – Bar
Disks Medium – Large – Pro
Series 3 – 5
Repetitions 5 -12




  • A) Warm Up, 15 Minutes
  • B) First Approach to the device
  • C) Bipodalic exercises
  • D) Monopodalic exercises


Proposed activities during sessions with D11 Full
General Warm-up, 15 minutes.
First approach to the device 2 slow series per exercise, using the Medium Disk
Monopodalic exercises using Small – Medium Disk
Bipodalic exercises using Large – Pro Disk


These images were downloaded from D.Soft




On 29th November 2019, it is clear a disequilibrium to the left, with the superimposition of the unloaded force and with the derivative of the differential between the two limbs

On 3rd March 2020, the disequilibrium to the left has been reduced, with the superimposition of the unloaded force and with the derivative of the differential between the two limbs












PC= Conc Peak; MC= Conc Mean
PE= Ecc Peak; EM= Ecc Mean


  • Isoinertial training with Desmotec D.11 allowed the subject to achieve his goal, improving his beuro-muscular profile.
  1. From a qualitative point of view, the force expression reached symmetry
  2. From a Quantitative point of view, the growth of force, during the eccentric phase, will allow the subject to icrease work loads, allowing him to express more power.

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Eccentric Force Training and Rotulean Tendinopathy


  • The aim of this training project is to allow the subject GG, 22 yo, 196cm, 76 kg, to restart his sport activity as amateur volleyball player
  • The athlete, affected by bilateral rotuleous tendinopathy, came to our centre in order to be treated.
  • Our intervention was based on physioterapic sessions, then, once the subject achieved a complete return to functionality, he started a strength conditioning training in November 2019, in order to increase his load capacity, needed for his full recovery.
  • The strength conditioning training was based on isometric exercises (ex. Spanish squat) during the pre-training phase, according to the program proposed by J. Cook, integrated with isoinertial training with Desmotec D.full, in order to improve the subject’s eccentric response which is fundamental in the jumps landing phase, an high impact and frequent situation while palying volleyball.


Gender Male
Age 22
Job Volleyball Player



Returning to sport activity, recovering from rutulean tendinopathy


Functional recovery with Physiotherapist
Opened and closed kinetic chain exercises Isometric, dynamic, low speed
Lower Limbs Isometric, Isotonic


Isoinertial Protocol Start
Device Desmotec D-Full
Test Balance, Isometric Max, First Approach, Power Max


Isoinertial Protocol next steps
Device Desmotec D-Full
Test/exercise Bilateral Squat,

Split Squat.

Hip Hinge,

Side Squat,

Inertia Medium, High

(Medium, Large, Pro)


Spanish Squat different angles, 30 secs. Dor 5 repetitions, 3 times per day, Squat depth based on subject’s pain. Volleyball pre-training.


Bulgarian Squat, 3 slow series, 10 repetitions, focus on tension. Squat depth based on the subject’s pain. Volleyball pre-training.



Bilateral Squat, complete extension


Bilateral Squat, not complete extension


Iso Step-Up

Iso Split Squat


Week 1 Sessions n.3
Series 3
Repetitions 15
Speed Low
Rec. time 60 sec. minimum
Inertia Medium – High
Target Learning the exercise


Week 2-3 Sessions n.6
Series 3
Repetitions 10 + 3
Speed Medium – High
Rec. Time 60 secs. minimum
Inertia Medium-High
Target Ipertrophy – Power
Week 4-5 Sessions n.6
Series 5
Repetitions 5+3
Speed Max
Rec. Time 90 secs. minimum
Inertia Medium
Target Develpment Power and Resistence


Initial Bipodalic Isometric Test, Squat 120°, 15 seconds.
Idem for Monopodalic squat


Max power TEST 02.12.2019 13:26
 Device: D11 Full
 Pattern: Squat Bipo
 Method: repetition
 Repetitions: 10
 Inertia: 0,6 kg/m2


Improved power peak in concentric work (1282w to 1414w) and eccentric work (1198 to 1734w), diminished variable in concentric work (from 25% to 5%) and eccentric work (from 23% to 13%)



Max Power test TEST05.03.2020 11:51
 Device: D11 Full
 Pattern: Squat Bipo
 Method: repetition
 Repetitions: 10
 Inertia: 0,6 kg/m2






  • The results were excellent, the subject felt his post- training and post-game pain gradually diminishing. The pain was almost unbearable before the treatment.
  • No cases of Tendinean Algia after the Isoinertial
  • Feeble pain (2-3 on a 10 scale) during isotonic monopodalic exercises At the end of the treatment, an exercises program was provided to the athlete, based on 5 sessions per week, to perform before training.
  • We were not able to perform the final isometric tests because of the COVID-19 emergency.

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Training for strength: Example for Basketball Split Squat


  • This analysis is focused on physical training of DD, a basketball player of the Youth Academy who has been included in the Main Team during this season.
  • The athelte has started to train again after a period of inactivity, he is 19, 196cm , 79,2 kg ha 19 anni, He needs to improve his muscular structure in order to be able to sustain the trainings with a Professional Basketball Team, playing in Italian A2.
  • Following a first phase of adapting to training using with small tools (August-September), the athelte carried out a first cycle of hipertrophy with overloads (October-November) and after that, he has carried out a second phase in whichit was also integrated isoinertial training for lower limbs with overloads (November – February).


Gender Male
Age 20
Job Basketball Player




Improving athlete’s physical performances in three phases:

  • Adapting to trainings for strength
  • Hipertrophy
  • Hipertrophy and power


PHASE 1 August – September
Goal Adapting
Exercises Body Weight Squat, 1 Leg Squat to Box, Hip Thruster, Hip Hinge
Weekly sessions 4
Sets and repetitions 3×12-15

PHASE 2 OctoberNovember
Goal Hipertrophy
Exercises Goblet Squat, 2 Dumbbells Bulgarian Squat, Plate Hip Thruster, Kettlebell Deadlift
Weekly sessions 4
Sets and repetitions 3×10

PHASE 3 DecemberFebruary
Goal Hipertrophy and power
Exercises Barbell Squat, Isoinertial Split Squat, Barbell Hip Thruster, Barbell Deadlift
Weekly sessions 3
Sets and repetitions 3×10



Device D.Full
Test Split Squat
Tool Integral Harness
Disk Medium + Large
N° of weeks 12
Times per week 1
Sets 3
Repetitions 10+10





From November to February with one isoinertial training session per week, performed before the main basketball trainings with the team:

Total Volume from 11.65J to 18.23J

During the concentric phase
Power peak from 358W to 781W
Power average from 216W to 509W

During the eccentric phase
Power peak from 452W to 612W
Power average from 280W to 424W



Desmotec allowed me to focus on training lower limbs power, during a regular cycle of strength wit overloads.

In addition, it allowed me to monitor the Watt expressed during every repetitions in both concentric and eccentric phases, in order to verify eventual improvements in peaks and averages reached by the subject.

The Desmotec software allows to monitor the standard deviation: in this particular case it was around 20%. It is possible to analyze the execution of the exercise in case the subject needs to learn it or improve the support.


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NeuroMuscolar Training on DLine in a subject with Parkinson' s disease to mantain strength and balance

This study explains the importance of neuromuscular training, also focusing on basic exercises of proprioception and a subject with Parkinson’s disease, to help the subject to maintain balance and strenght.


Postural control requires a complex integration of motor performance and sensory perceptions.

Soft tissue injuries can adversely affect postural control, as well as mechanical stability and somatosensory function. This reduction in postural stability can therefore lead to a higher risk of secondary damage, resulting in a pathological cycle.

  • Thomas Bartels, Kay Brehme, Martin Pyschik, Stephan Schulze, Karl-Stefan Delank, Georg Fieseler, Kevin G. Laudner, Souhail Hermassi, René Schwesig, Pre- and postoperative postural regulation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation 2018;14(1):143-151
  • Fulton J, Wright K, Kelly M, Zebrosky B, Zanis M, Drvol C, Butler R. Injury risk is altered by previous injury: a systematic review of the literature and presentation of causative neuromuscular factors. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2014;9:583-595.
  • Haas CT, Buhlmann A, Turbanski S, Schmidtbleicher D. Proprioceptive and sensorimotor performance in Parkinson’s disease. Res Sports Med 2006;14:273-287.

The correct load distribution between left and right foot is the basic exercise of proprioception. therefore, we decided to use the ‘balance test‘ function of the DLine Desmotec platform as a balancing feedback during the squat, to create a neuro-muscular exercise in patients with balance deficits.


Gender Male
Age 77
LIFESTYLE Cross Country Skiing

PROBLEM: PTA left-rigth >10 y, low back pain, Parkinson’s disease

OBJECTIVE TO BE ACHIEVED:  Maintenance of stength and balance



  • Reinforcement with isotonic machines
  • Exercises on unstable plates
  • Exercises for core stability
  • To combine in a single exercise reinforcement and improvement of balance, we added the squat execution on the DLINE DESMOTEC platform
  • The “balance test” program of the Desmotec software provides the patient with real-time visual feedback of the right-left foot balance


Device DLine
Test Balance Test during Squat
Duration 1 minute

The patient is asked to position himself on the platform, with his feet equidistant from the center and instructed to take a minute of squat.


  • The final report shows the therapist the quality of the task execution and provides the patient with feedback on the actual balance maintained
  • The challenge to be offered to the patient is to maintain the two lines as similar as possible, and to have a numerical balance value close to 50/50

Benefits of  using of Desmotec :

  • The patient is facilitated in learning from visual feedback in real time
  • The patient feels involved in the challenge, therefore appears motivated, despite the challenging task from the muscular point of view
  • The therapist can monitor the correct execution of the gesture in real time